Appendix 1: Associated Documents

Upload review spreadsheet here.



output overview 248

introduction 315

design processes 213

observe & interact 300

Total = 1076

Section3: patterns to details 197
nutrition 373
medicinal 414
indoor 334
orchards 188
Total = 1506

Section 4+

Catch & store energy 227
Obtain a yield 153
All our relations 168
Creatively using & responding to change 171

learning review 396
conclusion 104

Total: 3801

Appendix 2: Kamana Inventory Reference

Kamana Inventory Reference

The People
- think of what people are prominent in your mind at this time e.g. people from work, family, lovers, people around the world etc.
- whatever comes to mind, make a note.

The Earth
- observe the land with all your senses, put your hand to the ground and notice how it feels to your touch.
- make general observations about the Earth and the things close to the Earth, such as the rocks, soils, snow cover, moisture, leaf litter, debris and minerals, as well as the insects, spiders, worms and other things moving on the ground.

The Waters
- notice the frost or dew on the ground, notice the damp places, puddles, ground water bogs, pools, rivers - whatever bodies of water, small or large, are in or near your secret spot area.
- observe the things living in any of these areas, observe the plants, the fish, the turtles, the frogs, any animals and even the rocks in and around the waters.

The Plants
- look at the plants. Look at the algae, lichens, mosses, ferns, horsetails and grasses.
- look at all the herbs, garden plants and all other low growing plants and make notes of your observations.
- how tall are they? Are they flowering or fruiting? Are they bursting through the ground or sleeping through winter?
- where is the energy of the plant? In the ground, shoot, flower, seeds?
- describe the texture and colour of the stems. Write what comes to your mind's eye most.

The Animals
- make general observations about all animal forms, incl. worms, snails, slugs, ants, spiders, mites, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, insects, frogs, toads, salamanders etc and mammals.
- this includes tracks, sign and trails as well.

The Trees
- what do you notice this month that you haven't seen before? Some trees may have leaves coming out, some may be fully in leaf, others may seem to be flowering.
- notice the vines, shrubs and other woody plants.
- what kind of changes are the trees making in their environment through leaf litter, shade, root action, shed branches and stumps?

The Birds
- look to the birds
- pay attention to the birds that call from the landscape, esp. those who sing in such a way that they become part of your conscious memory of a place.
- think in terms of what you hear, and what you see soaring, gliding or flitting overhead.
- also think of the time of day.

The Wind
- look to the four winds.
- what do you notice about the winds? Is it very windy now? Has the wind been cold from the northwest? `What scent does the wind carry?
- it is our minds eye that can best interpret the winds by listening and feeling their effect. Make general observations.

The Weather, the Rain and the Clouds
- look to the clouds and the rains.
- notice the presence or lack of thunder and lightning.
- observe the mists, the humidity and dampness.
- notice the cloud formations, the occurrence of snow, of rain of storms of spring.

The Moon
- what phase is the moon in? How does it appear, is it low? Bright?
- how does it feel? When did you notice it? Do you notice its effect on the tides?
- observe the moon through the trees, across the mountains, or in the open sky at all times of day and night through all the seasons.

The Sun
- where is the sun rising? Where is it setting in relation to your secret spot?
- how is it at midday? How warm does it feel?
- note the effect on the shadows the animals, and the plants. Think of its effects on the flow of life on the earth.

The Stars
- look up at the stars and make some notes about where the stars are relative to one another.
- what constellations are you seeing now that you didn't see before?
- even if you don't know the names, familiarize yourself with the common patterns.
- access your memories of looking at the stars. The stars are always there.

Creativity in our lives
- write down any inspirational thoughts that may have come to you.
- has anything happened recently that seems to be a coincidence?
- make observations about patterns you've discovered or feelings you've had.
- make a note of anything you've noticed honoring the connection that you have with the source of inspiration, intuition and special coincidence.

The Universe and Future Generations
- think about all the future generations to whom we will be ancestors.
- what would you say to the future generations about the world we live in now?
- what would you say to them in light of everything you are doing now? what would you say to them to reassure them?
- make some notes on these perspectives.

From the Kamana Naturalist Training Course.

Appendix 3

Top Tips for Effective Observation

  • Get into the habit of writing your observations down e.g. a dedicated journal by your bed or a separate digital one on your computer desktop
  • Even if you are totally exhausted at the end of the day even a few 'trigger' words can remind you of what you gained that day e.g. 'big storm', 'mushrooms'
  • Record in a format so you think about all elements e.g. the kamana inventory (link) shows different catergories of reflection e.g. plants, animals, sun, weather (similar to a biotime diary)
  • Take photographs! At Brook End I ensured every solstice I recorded over 90 pictures of the land
  • Take photos from similar angles to really see the changes
  • Look at all heights e.g. not just the herb layer if you're a botanist
  • Read my notes on holistic surveying for alternative ways of reading the land
  • Observations can be effective from the same place (a sit spot - link) that you become intimate with and can really notice the changes
  • Try going away for a few days and you will really notice any changes
  • Ensure you go and observe in all weathers
  • Observe not just the land but your self and the family's energy e.g. When are you stressed? How long is long enough for visitors? Which jobs get ignored because the tools are too far away? How do you walk through the site, why?
  • It is these observations and social patterns that have influenced my design decisions more than any other.

Appendix 4: Zone analysis at Brook End

Zone Analysis at Brook End

Brook End Element

Number of times we need to visit

The number of times the element needs us to visit it

Additional observations


Daily (continuously)




Daily (min x 2)




Daily (min x 2)


Also to feed and clean out every 2-3 days.

Compost toilet

Daily (2-3)

Annually to clear

Fortnightly trips to replace rolls



Seasonally for pruning, semi-regularly for harvesting during Sep/Oct

Daily to visit to chickens & as a pathway to house

Vegetable beds

Daily to salad beds

2- 3 times per week for root  & other vegetables (harvesting and weeding/management)

Once a week for attention.

Watering every 2-3 days in Summer.

Feeding 2-3 times per month.



2 x per week for fruiting crops e.g. tomatoes

1 x week for herbs & container plants

Every 2 days for watering and care.

2 x per year for cleaning.



2-3 days for harvesting

Every 2 days for watering and care.

Annually for mulching.



Don’t need to visit at present, only for recreation.




Seasonally for festivals, to celebrate in Glade.



Woodland edge

Harvesting comfrey 2-3 times per month.




Daily as a pathway.

2-8 times for camps & events

Once per year for main cut.



5-6 times a year, seasonally in summer

Annually to dust & clean windows.



2-3 times per week

Annually to clean

Will be used more when moved & used for business & community activities


Once a week

Monthly to add wood

More in winter & for Oak Dragon camp

Barn & Tool Shed

3 times a week or more depending on activities.

Annual clean

Where chicken feed is stored.


2-3 times a week or more depending on activities


Where hay & cleaning equipment is stored.


Seasonally, mainly used in Summer


Will be used more when elderly relatives move in